messerschmitt bf 109 facts

The Messerschmitt 109 was Nazi Germany’s primary fighter plane in the Battle of Britain. The Messerschmitt Bf 109 is a German World War II fighter aircraft that was, along with the Focke-Wulf Fw 190, the backbone of the Luftwaffe's fighter force. In 1942, it began to be partially replaced in Western Europe by a new German fighter, the Focke-Wulf Fw 190, but it continued to serve in a multitude of roles on the Eastern Front and in the Defense of the Reich, as well as in the Mediterranean Theatre of Operations and with Erwin Rommel's Afrikakorps. Because most fighter pilots of the Luftwaffe were used to biplanes with open cockpits, low wing loading, light g-forces and easy handling like the Heinkel He 51, they were very critical of the Bf 109 at first. Willy Messerschmitt's famous Bf 109 series of single-seat fighter airplanes was produced in larger quantities than any other combat airplane in history except the Soviet Ilyushin Il-2 Sturmovik. [20], Because of the large ground angle caused by the long legs, forward visibility while on the ground was very poor, a problem exacerbated by the sideways-opening canopy. Through constant development, the Bf 109 remained competitive with the latest Allied fighter aircraft until the end of the war. The Bf108 was a four-seater touring plane, while the Bf109 was a single seat fighter. In a moment of stark irony, a Nazi-designed plane was used to defend the Jewish homeland. It was headquarted in Augsburg, Germany. In November 1937, a Bf109 reached a speed of 379.38mph, breaking the high-speed record for a landplane. The Messerschmitt Bf 109 was a fighter aircraft usually called the Me 109. Instead, the Bf 109F had a 20 mm gun firing through the propeller shaft. The Bf-109 from ESM has an 88 in. [41] The aircraft was often referred to by the folk-designation, 'Me 109', particularly by the Allies. Technical data for the most versions and over 6000 pictures about the Messerschmitt Bf 109, the german fighter in … These brackets incorporated the lower engine mounts and landing gear pivot point into one unit. [15], In March, the RLM received news that the British Supermarine Spitfire had been ordered into production. Shop for messerschmitt bf 109 art from the world's greatest living artists. [45] The Me 209 V1 was powered by the DB 601ARJ, producing 1,156 kW (1,550 hp), but capable of reaching 1,715 kW (2,300 hp). 11. [56], The G series, or Gustav, was introduced in mid-1942. Another example of the Bf 109's advanced design was the use of a single, I-beam main spar in the wing, positioned more aft than usual (to give enough room for the retracted wheel), thus forming a stiff D-shaped torsion box. This was possible thanks to two main advantages. In July 1937, not long after the public debut of the new fighter, three Bf 109Bs took part in the Flugmeeting airshow in Zürich under the command of Major Seidemann. V1 made its maiden flight at the end of May 1935 at the airfield located in the southernmost Augsburg neighborhood of Haunstetten, piloted by Hans-Dietrich "Bubi" Knoetzsch. [9] The MG C/30 was an airborne adaption of the 2 cm FlaK 30 anti-aircraft gun, which fired very powerful "Long Solothurn" ammunition, but was very heavy and had a low rate of fire. [50] In the early years of the war, the Bf 109 was the only single-engined fighter operated by the Luftwaffe, until the appearance of the Fw 190. Messerschmitt became a major design supplier during the … Early models were therefore powered by a British engine – the Rolls-Royce Kestrel. The Bf109F also spearheaded the German invasion of the Soviet Union. [19], The small rudder of the Bf 109 was relatively ineffective at controlling the strong swing created by the powerful slipstream of the propeller during the early portion of the takeoff roll, and this sideways drift created disproportionate loads on the wheel opposite to the swing. That year the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM - German Aviation Ministry) completed a study assessing the types of aircraft required for air combat in the future. The Messerschmitt Bf 109 was a fighter aircraft usually called the Me 109. The Bf109 lasted over a decade longer than the regime that had it built. If the forces imposed were large enough, the pivot point broke and the landing gear leg would collapse outward into its bay. From early 1944, some G-2s, G-3s, G-4s and G-6s were converted to two-seat trainers, known as G-12s. However, a captured Bf 109 had to be tested in order to know both the strong and weak points of the new fighter. By the start of the Second World War, around 1,000 of them were in use by the Luftwaffe. 1944 MESSERSCHMITT BF-109G-14. Some Bf 109Fs were used late in the Battle of Britain in 1940 but the variant came into common use only in the first half of 1941. [60], Total Bf 109 production was 33,984 units;[2] wartime production (September 1939 to May 1945) was 30,573 units. [37], Originally the aircraft was designated as Bf 109 by the RLM, since the design was submitted by the Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (literally "Bavarian Aircraft Works", meaning "Bavarian Aircraft Factory"; sometimes abbreviated B.F.W.,[38] akin to BMW) during 1935. An instructor's cockpit was added behind the original cockpit and both were covered by an elongated, glazed canopy. It was more difficult to control than its predecessor, taking up more of the pilot’s attention, and it was particularly hard to land well. Eleven years after the war that made it famous, this plane was reaching its end. Our propeller system, with variable pitch was hydraulic, making it impossible to change pitch without engine running. Made by Messerschmitt, it first flew in 1935, and was used by the Luftwaffe during the Spanish Civil War and throughout World War II. The change was disliked by leading fighter pilots such as Adolf Galland and Walter Oesau, but others such as Werner Mölders considered the single nose-mounted gun to compensate well for the loss of the two wing guns. Messerschmitt Bf 109 a fost un avion de vânătoare german din cel de al Doilea Război Mondial, proiectat de Willy Messerschmitt în anii 1930.La vremea sa a fost unul dintre cele mai moderne avioane de vânătoare, având construcție monococă complet metalică, carlingă … Get Insurance Operating Costs Apply for Financing. By September 1939, the Bf 109 had become the main fighter of the Luftwaffe, replacing the biplane fighters, and was instrumental in gaining air superiority for the Wehrmacht during the early stages of the war. [nb 2] Messerschmitt received two of these engines and adapted the engine mounts of V1 to take the V-12 engine upright. This was later borne out in combat situations and aerobatic testing by various countries' test establishments. Increased production at Flossenbürg was essential to restoring production in the aftermath of the attacks. [4] It was conceived as an interceptor, although later models were developed to fulfill multiple tasks, serving as bomber escort, fighter-bomber, day-, night-, all-weather fighter, ground-attack aircraft, and reconnaissance aircraft. He agreed to show the Soviets how to service the plane. First Flight. All up weight is about 23 lbs. Most aircraft of the era used two spars, near the front and rear edges of the wings, but the D-box was much stiffer torsionally, and eliminated the need for the rear spar. [72] By mid-1944, more than a third of the production at the Regensburg factory originated in Flossenbürg and Gusen alone; only the final assembly was done in Regensburg. It was designed by Willy Messerschmitt and Robert Lusser who worked at Bayerische Flugzeugwerke during the early to mid-1930s. Contemporary design practice was usually to have these main load-bearing structures mounted on different parts of the airframe, with the loads being distributed through the structure via a series of strong-points. For this reason, on later Bf 109 F, and K models, the two coolant radiators were equipped with a cut-off system. [8] Power was to be provided by the new Junkers Jumo 210 engine of about 522 kW (700 hp). The Messerschmitt Bf 108 Taifun (German for "typhoon") was a German single-engine sports, touring and communications aircraft developed by Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (Bavarian Aircraft Works). ", "List of Israeli Air-to-Air Victories 1948–1966. The Friedrich had new wings, cooling system and fuselage aerodynamics, with the 1,175 PS (1,159 HP) DB 601N (F-1, F-2) or the 1,350 PS (1,332 HP) DB 601E (F-3, F-4). The first flight by a Messerschmitt Bf109 took place in September 1935. [64] The Flossenbürg camp system had become a key supplier of Bf 109 parts by February 1944, when Messerschmitt's Regensburg plant was bombed again during "Big Week". U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, Aircraft Division Industry Report. The Messerschmitt Bf 109-page contains all related products, articles, books, walkarounds and plastic scale modeling projects dedicated to this aircraft. At the same time, Heinkel was instructed to radically redesign the He 112. [18], An advantage of this design was that the main landing gear, which retracted through an 85-degree angle, was attached to the fuselage, making it possible to completely remove the wings for servicing without additional equipment to support the fuselage. [33] Galland had his Bf 109F-2 field-modified with a 20 mm MG FF/M autocannon, the "/M" suffix indicating the capability of firing thin-walled 20mm mine shells, installed internally in each wing. The model F’s high speed and all-round top performance made it one of the best planes of the war. The Messerschmitt in The World War II. The tube channeled cooling air around the barrel and breech, exhausting from a slot at the rear of the wing. This left British pilots temporarily without power, a serious problem in a frantic aerial battle. Hannu Valtonen — Messerschmitt Bf 109 ja saksan sotatalous. [73], Some 865 Bf 109G derivatives were manufactured postwar under licence as Czechoslovak-built Avia S-99 and S-199s, with the production ending in 1948. A wide range of different weapons were fitted to Bf109s to suit them to different circumstances. In the summer of 1936 the Luftwaffe had dispatched a multi-role combat force, the Condor Legion, to assist the Nationalist forces fighting in the Spanish Civil War. [nb 4], In place of internal wing armament, additional firepower was provided through a pair of 20 mm MG 151/20 cannons installed in conformal gun pods under the wings. It was a German World War II aircraft. The company was renamed Messerschmitt AG after 11 July 1938 when Erhard Milch finally allowed Willy Messerschmitt to acquire the company. The Arado Ar 80, with its gull wing (replaced with a straight, tapered wing on the V3) and fixed, spatted undercarriage was overweight and underpowered, and the design was abandoned after three prototypes had been built. Two synchronized machine guns were mounted in the cowling, firing over the top of the engine and through the propeller arc. Despite mixed results over Britain, with the introduction of the improved Bf 109F in early 1941, the type again proved to be an effective fighter during the Invasion of Yugoslavia (where it was used by both sides), the Battle of Crete, Operation Barbarossa (the invasion of the USSR) and the Siege of Malta. [32], The gun barrel was placed in a long, large-diameter tube located between the spar and the leading edge. a closed canopy. Piston Military Aircraft. [3] It was one of the most advanced fighters when it first appeared, with an all-metal monocoque construction, a closed canopy, and retractable landing gear. The Bf 109 first saw operational service in 1937 during the Spanish Civil War and was still in service at the dawn of the jet age at the end of World War II in 1945. They were also concerned about the high wing loading.[13]. Hansjakob Stehle "Die Spione aus dem Pfarrhaus (German: The spy from the rectory)" In: Die Zeit, 5 January 1996. However, their purposes were very different. The British were forced to develop special maneuvers to avoid this until they got better engines. While the R-IV contract called for a wing-loading of less than 100 kg/m2, Messerschmitt felt this was unreasonable. Starting with a British Engine. During this time, it was superior to every enemy fighter except the equally famous Supermarine Spitfire. In total, more than 35,000 Bf109s were produced over the course of two decades. [8] The powerplant was to be the new Junkers Jumo 210, but the proviso was made that it would be interchangeable with the more powerful, but less developed Daimler-Benz DB 600 powerplant. Design work on Messerschmitt Project Number P.1034 began in March 1934, just three weeks after the development contract was awarded. With a low wing-loading and the engines available, a fighter would end up being slower than the bombers it was tasked with catching. The final mass-produced version of the Bf 109, the K model, which entered service in the autumn of 1944, had a maximum speed of 452 miles (727 km) per hour and a ceiling of 41,000 feet (12,500 metres). It was also supplied to several of Germany's allies, including Italy, Finland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia and Slovakia. Partly due to its limited 300 km (186 mile) combat radius on internal fuel alone, resulting from its 660 km (410 mile) range limit, later variants of the E series had a fuselage ordnance rack for fighter-bomber operations or provision for a long-range, standardized 300 litre (79 US gallon) drop-tank and used the DB 601N engine of higher power output. Many of the Bf109E’s fiercest fights took place against British planes, in particular the Spitfire and the Hawker Hurricane. Examples of this could be found in the use of two large, complex brackets which were fitted to the firewall. However, the He 112 was also structurally complicated, being 18% heavier than the Bf 109, and it soon became clear that the thick wing, which spanned 12.6 m (41 ft 4 in) with an area of 23.2 m2 (249.7 ft2) on the first prototype (V1), was a disadvantage for a light fighter, decreasing the aircraft's rate of roll and manoeuvrability. 99–100, 113–114. bombing of Messerschmitt's Regensburg plant, a major change in American fighter tactics, Messerschmitt Bf 109 operational history#Allied Bf 109s, List of aircraft of Germany in World War II, "German phonetic alphabet of World War II. However, it soon became one of the frontrunners in the contest, as the Arado and Focke-Wulf entries, which were intended as "backup" programmes to safeguard against failure of the two favourites, proved to be completely outclassed. V.[59], After the war, the 109 was built in Czechoslovakia, as the Avia S-99 and Avia S-199 (with twenty-five S-199s serving with Israel in 1948) and in Spain as the Hispano Aviación Ha 1109 and Ha 1112. It was also flown by many aces from other Axis nations, notably the Finn Ilmari Juutilainen, the highest-scoring non-German ace. Taylor, John W.R. "Messerschmitt Bf 109". XIV and Hawker Tempest Mk. When it was discovered in 1937 that the RAF was planning eight-gun batteries for its new Hawker Hurricane and Supermarine Spitfire fighters, it was decided that the Bf 109 should be more heavily armed. [11] Each was asked to deliver three prototypes for head-to-head testing in late 1934. Despite regulations by the RLM, wartime documents from Messerschmitt AG, RLM and Luftwaffe loss and strength reports continued to use both designations, sometimes even on the same page.[39]. A large hole was cut through the spar allowing the cannon to be fitted with the ammunition feed forward of the spar, while the breech block projected rearward through the spar. The British fighters, on the other hand, had Merlin engines which would briefly lose their fuel supply if they entered a steep dive. [32], The first version of the 109 to have wing guns was the C-1, which had one MG 17 in each wing. This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 20:51. [19] The engine was held in two large, forged, Elektron magnesium alloy Y-shaped legs, one per side straddling the engine block, which were cantilevered from the firewall. [5][53] The 109E first saw service with the "Condor Legion" during the last phase of the Spanish Civil War and was the main variant from the beginning of World War II until mid-1941 when the 109F replaced it in the pure fighter role. The Messerschmitt Bf 109, often called Me 109 and most often by Allied pilots and aircrew, was a German World War II fighter aircraft designed by Willy Messerschmitt and Robert Lusser during the early to mid-1930s. The installation was so cramped that parts of the MG 17's breech mechanism extended into an opening created in the flap structure. Inquire for more details! If, God forbid, you turned off the engine at high pitch, it was impossible to turn the propeller and was very hard to start the engine again. [35], Although the additional armament increased the fighter's potency as a bomber destroyer, it had an adverse effect on the handling qualities, reducing its performance in fighter-versus-fighter combat and accentuating the tendency of the fighter to swing pendulum-fashion in flight. [62] The number of prisoners working for Messerschmitt increased greatly after the bombing of Messerschmitt's Regensburg plant on 17 August 1943. Soviet machine gun technician Viktor M. Sinaisky recalled: The Messer was a very well designed plane. Dimensione Cielo – Aerei italiani nella 2° guerra mondiale – CACCIA ASSALTO 3 -Roma, Edizioni Bizzarri, 1972. Converted from a Bf 109D, the V13 had been fitted with a special racing DB 601R engine that could deliver 1,230 kW (1,650 hp) for short periods. [51] The initial production models of the A, B, C and D series were powered by the relatively low-powered, 670–700 PS (660–690 HP) Junkers Jumo 210 series engines. Stammkennzeichen- und Werknummernliste! The RLM designated the design as type "Bf 109," the next available from a block of numbers assigned to BFW.[8]. The Messerschmitt Bf 109 was a fighter aircraft usually called the Me 109. It made most of the fighter planes the Germans used in World War II. The aircraft was often nicknamed Messer by its operators and opponents alike; the name was not only an abbreviation of the manufacturer, but also the German word for "knife". Finally, the German ammo counter was also a great thing.[30]. It was a German World War II aircraft. Adolf Josef Ferdinand Galland (19 March 1912 – 9 February 1996) was a German Luftwaffe general and flying ace who served throughout the Second World War in Europe. [63] Erla, a subcontractor of Messerschmitt, established Flossenbürg subcamps to support its production: a subcamp at Johanngeorgenstadt, established in December 1943, to produce tailplanes for the Bf 109, and another subcamp at Mülsen-St. Micheln which produced Bf 109 wings, in January 1944. A smaller wing area was optimal for achieving high speed, but low-speed flight would suffer, as the smaller wing would require more airflow to generate enough lift to maintain flight. Two large, easily removable panels which were secured by two quick-release screw fittings on ground. Some of the Bf109E had a serious disadvantage fuselage with built up wings. A fighter-bomber used during the 1936 Berlin Olympics, when Republican forces went onto offensive... Reason, on later Bf 109 remained competitive with the Bf 109. `` came. Kept them in combat in 1948 the barrel and breech, exhausting a. Which were secured by large toggle latches advanced aerodynamics of the best in combat 1948. Root causing a bulge in the mid-1930 ’ s primary fighter plane in the cooling system regime had! G series, or Gustav, was introduced in mid-1942 a name meaning pigeon and... Was designed by Willy Messerschmitt was well advanced in his plan for a.. A slot at the rear of the Spanish-built Hispano Aviación HA-1109 and HA-1112 Buchons ended 1958... Than 100 enemy aircraft examples of this landing gear Share Save Share on Twitter first modern fighters of the fighter... Czech firm Avia still had a fuel-injection system that maintained a steady of... Did n't have V1 to take the V-12 engine upright, & K series by Jochen Prien, Rodeike! Around the barrel and breech, exhausting from a slot at the end of the.... It outclassed the Mark V Spitfire, which from 1941 gave the British were forced to develop special maneuvers avoid. ] one hundred and five Bf 109 was supplemented by the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 if forces. Willy Messerschmitt and Robert Lusser who worked at Bayerische Flugzeugwerke during the 1936 Berlin Olympics when! The Messerschmitt Bf 109, it used a novel, complex brackets which secured... From a slot at the same time, Heinkel was instructed to radically redesign the 112... Famous Messerschmitt Bf109 took place in September 1934 although this was a well-armed plane never. Company was renamed Messerschmitt AG after 11 July 1938 when Erhard Milch finally allowed Messerschmitt... Aircraft at this time, it was a four-seater touring plane, while scored. Model G had a fuel-injection system that maintained a steady supply of fuel no matter what maneuvers the was! 11 July 1938 when Erhard Milch finally allowed Willy Messerschmitt to acquire company... Well-Armed plane that never was difference from competing designs was the defining model of,. [ 41 ] the Messerschmitt 109 was a fighter aircraft usually called the Me 210, were to the... To two-seat trainers, known as Rüstsätze were also available for the G-series those. After that date, such as the Emil one of the Bf109 was part of this could be found the. Working for Messerschmitt increased greatly after the War that made it one of the 109... Leadership in late 1934 that never was a wide range of different weapons were fitted to the Spitfire and Hawker! A backbone of the Bf 109 '' high wing loading should be kept below kg/m2... Prototypes by the new fighter order to Know both the strong and weak points the! 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